Wage Earning and Education

R. R. Lutz

Wage Earning and Education

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Title: Wage Earning and Education
Author: R. R. Lutz
Release Date: October 30, 2005 [EBook #16964]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
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+------------------------------------------------+ | Transcriber's Note: Some very obvious typos | | were corrected in this text. For a list please | | see the bottom of the document. | +------------------------------------------------+
WAGE EARNING AND EDUCATION
THE SURVEY COMMITTEE OF THE CLEVELAND FOUNDATION
Charles E. Adams, Chairman Thomas G. Fitzsimons Myrta L. Jones Bascom Little Victor W. Sincere
Arthur D. Baldwin, Secretary James R. Garfield, Counsel Allen T. Burns, Director
THE EDUCATION SURVEY
Leonard P. Ayres, Director
CLEVELAND EDUCATION SURVEY

WAGE EARNING AND EDUCATION
BY R.R. LUTZ
THE SURVEY COMMITTEE OF THE CLEVELAND FOUNDATION CLEVELAND กค OHIO
1916

COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY THE SURVEY COMMITTEE OF THE CLEVELAND FOUNDATION
WM. F. FELL CO. PRINTERS PHILADELPHIA

FOREWORD
This summary volume, entitled "Wage Earning and Education," is one of the 25 sections of the report of the Education Survey of Cleveland conducted by the Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation in 1915 and 1916. Copies of all the publications may be obtained from the Cleveland Foundation. They may also be obtained from the Division of Education of the Russell Sage Foundation, New York City. A complete list will be found in the back of this volume, together with prices.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE Foreword 5 List of Tables 10 List of Diagrams 12
CHAPTER I.
THE INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SURVEY 13 Types of occupations studied 13 The Survey staff and methods of work 14
II. FORECASTING FUTURE PROBABILITIES 18 The popular concept of industrial education 19 The importance of relative numbers 20 A constructive program must fit the facts 23 An actuarial basis for industrial education 24
III. THE WAGE EARNERS OF CLEVELAND 25
IV. THE FUTURE WAGE EARNERS OF CLEVELAND 29 The public schools 29 Ages of pupils 32 Education at the time of leaving school 34
V. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOR BOYS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 38 What the boys in school will do 40 Organization and costs 44 What the elementary schools can do 45
VI. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 47 Specialized training not practicable 48 A general industrial course 49 Industrial mathematics 52 Mechanical Drawing 54 Industrial science 55 Shop work 56 Vocational information 58
VII. TRADE TRAINING DURING THE LAST YEARS IN SCHOOL 60 The technical high schools 62 A two-year trade course 66
VIII. TRADE-PREPARATORY AND TRADE-EXTENSION TRAINING FOR BOYS AND MEN AT WORK 69 Continuation training from 15 to 18 74 The technical night schools 76 A combined program of continuation and trade-extension training 80
IX. VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR GIRLS 83 Differentiation in the junior high school 86 Specialized training for the sewing trades 88 Other occupations 90
X. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 92 The work of the vocational counselor 92 The Girls' Vocation Bureau 94
XI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 97
SUMMARIES OF SPECIAL REPORTS
XII. BOYS AND GIRLS IN COMMERCIAL WORK 101 A general view of commercial work 106 Bookkeeping 108 Stenography 108 Clerks' positions 109 Wages and regularity of employment 110 The problem of training 111
XIII. DEPARTMENT STORE OCCUPATIONS 115 Department stores 115 Neighborhood stores 116 Five and ten cent stores 117 Wages 118 Regularity of employment 122 Opportunities for advancement 123 The problem of training 124 Character of the instruction 129
XIV. THE GARMENT TRADES 131 Characteristics of the working force 132 Earnings 135 Regularity of employment 139 Training and promotion 140 Educational needs 143 Sewing courses in the public schools 145 Elective sewing courses in the junior high school 147 A one year trade course for girls 148 Trade extension training 149
XV. DRESSMAKING AND MILLINERY 151 Dressmaking 151 Millinery 153 The problem of training 156
XVI. THE METAL TRADES 158 Foundry and machine shop products 159 Automobile manufacturing 169 Steel works, rolling mills, and related industries 170
XVII. THE BUILDING TRADES 173 Sources of labor supply 173 Apprenticeship 174 Union organization 176 Earnings 176 Hours 178 Regularity of employment 179 Health conditions 179 Opportunities for advancement 180 The problem of training 181
XVIII. RAILROAD AND STREET TRANSPORTATION 187 Railroad transportation 187 Motor and wagon transportation 192 Street railroad transportation 193
XIX. THE PRINTING TRADES 195 The composing room 198 The pressroom 201 The bindery 203 Other occupations 204 The problem of training 206

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE 1. Occupational distribution of the working population of Cleveland 26
2. Nativity of the working population in Cleveland 27
3. Pupils enrolled in the different grades of the public day schools in June, 1915 30
4. Enrollment of high school pupils, second semester, 1914-15 31
5. Ages of pupils enrolled in public elementary, high,
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