History of the English People, Volume II

John Richard Green
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History of the English People,
Volume II

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II (of
8), by John Richard Green
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Title: History of the English People, Volume II (of 8) The Charter,
1216-1307; The Parliament, 1307-1400
Author: John Richard Green

Release Date: November 10, 2005 [eBook #17038]
Language: English
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JOHN RICHARD GREEN, M.A. Honorary Fellow of Jesus College,
THE CHARTER, 1216-1307 THE PARLIAMENT, 1307-1400

_First Edition, Demy 8vo, November_ 1877; Reprinted December 1877,
1881, 1885, 1890. _Eversley Edition,_ 1895. London MacMillan and
Co. and New York 1895

Volume II
Book III--The Charter--1216-1307

Chapter II
--Henry the Third--1216-1232
Chapter III
--The Barons' War--1232-1272
Chapter IV
--Edward the First--1272-1307
Book IV--The Parliament--1307-1461
Authorities for Book IV
Chapter I
--Edward II--1307-1327
Chapter II
--Edward the Third--1327-1347
Chapter III
--The Peasant Revolt--1347-1381
Chapter IV
--Richard the Second--1381-1400
Scotland in 1290 (v2-map-1.jpg)
France at the Treaty of Bretigny (v2-map-2.jpg)


[Sidenote: William Marshal]
The death of John changed the whole face of English affairs. His son,
Henry of Winchester, was but nine years old, and the pity which was
stirred by the child's helplessness was aided by a sense of injustice in
burthening him with the iniquity of his father. At his death John had
driven from his side even the most loyal of his barons; but William
Marshal had clung to him to the last, and with him was Gualo, the
Legate of Innocent's successor, Honorius the Third. The position of
Gualo as representative of the Papal overlord of the realm was of the
highest importance, and his action showed the real attitude of Rome
towards English freedom. The boy-king was hardly crowned at
Gloucester when Legate and Earl issued in his name the very Charter
against which his father had died fighting. Only the clauses which
regulated taxation and the summoning of parliament were as yet
declared to be suspended. The choice of William Marshal as "governor
of King and kingdom" gave weight to this step; and its effect was seen
when the contest was renewed in 1217. Lewis was at first successful in
the eastern counties, but the political reaction was aided by jealousies
which broke out between the English and French nobles in his force,
and the first drew gradually away from him. So general was the
defection that at the opening of summer William Marshal felt himself
strong enough for a blow at his foes. Lewis himself was investing
Dover, and a joint army of French and English barons under the Count
of Perche and Robert Fitz-Walter was besieging Lincoln, when
gathering troops rapidly from the royal castles the regent marched to
the relief of the latter town. Cooped up in its narrow streets and

attacked at once by the Earl and the garrison, the barons fled in utter
rout; the Count of Perche fell on the field, Robert Fitz-Walter was
taken prisoner. Lewis at once retreated on London and called for aid
from France. But a more terrible defeat crushed his remaining hopes. A
small English fleet which set sail from Dover under Hubert de Burgh
fell boldly on the reinforcements which were crossing under escort of
Eustace the Monk, a well-known freebooter of the Channel. Some
incidents of the fight light up for us the naval warfare of the time. From
the decks of the English vessels bowmen poured their arrows into the
crowded transports, others hurled quicklime into their enemies' faces,
while the more active vessels crashed with their armed prows into the
sides of the French ships. The skill of the mariners of the Cinque Ports
turned the day against the larger forces of their opponents, and the fleet
of Eustace was utterly destroyed. The
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